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Agricultural Resources:


  • Jordan is considered as one of the countries with limited agricultural resources as the area of agricultural lands does not exceed 3.8 million donums (1 donum = 0.1 hectare). 4.3% of the total area amounting to 89.3 million donums, equivalent to 0.75 donum per individual. This area includes 3.1 million donums (81%) of which are unirrigated lands and (700) thousand donums (19%) of which are irrigated lands. The area of unirrigated lands planted with annual field crops vary from one year to another owing to the considerable changes in the rainfalls and their distribution.


  • Lands classified as “natural pastures” constitute nearly 80.4 million donums equivalent to 90% of the Kingdom’s area, including 70 million donums in Jordan’s eastern Badia (desert) regions where average rainfall is less than 100 ml. per year, thereby yielding low-productivity pastures, and 10 million donums in the steppe regions where the average rainfall ranges from 100-200 ml. 90% of these lands is owned by the private sector. Besides, there are 450 thousand donums in the mountainous where the average rainfall exceeds 200 ml. and which consist of small pieces of land distributed around the villages.


  • Forests cover an area of 958 thousand donums equivalent to 1% of the Kingdom’s area, including 508 thousand donums of natural forests around 25% of which is owned by citizens, and nearly 450 thousand donums planted by the Ministry of Agriculture.


  • Jordan is also classified as one of the driest group of countries around the world. The quantity of internal renewable and usable water resources is estimated at around 780 million cubic meter a year, of which individual’s share do not exceed 140 cubic meters (in the 2003). However, there is a number of salty water basins which are expected to provide 70 million cubic meters of water/ year after being desalinated. Yet, Jordan has some underground water resources which are not renewable, and of which an average quantity of 143 million cubic meters are currently used for agricultural and drinking purposes.


  • The agricultural sector uses 62-65% of the overall water consumption. Jordan has realized major achievements in the field of water sector management, and managed to maintain a delicate equation to provide the minimum water needs, despite the imbalance between supply and demand along with high water deficit. Jordan has also introduced modern irrigation technology in order to increase the efficient use of water in agriculture. Jordan has, therefore, become one of the pioneering countries in this field. Thus, 96% of the population has house water services, and 56% the population has access to sanitary sewage networks.


  • Agriculture in Jordan is characterized by the spread of small-size ownerships especially in mountainous areas with a relatively high quantity of rainfall. Thus, the number of agricultural land ownerships registered in the year 1997 has reached 88286 portions, i.e. with an average area of 34 donums per single ownership. However, the number of ownerships with areas less than ten donums reached 31219 ownerships which represent around 35% of the total registered ownerships. This situation has always reflected on the government’s trends and policies in the field of investment in agricultural development in terms of allocating special importance to the social implications of such development.


  • Jordanians constitute 99% of agricultural land owners whose average age is 51 years. Agriculture represents the only source of income for nearly 40% of farmers, whereas 60% of the farmers depend on additional sources of income.


  • Water: with the current rates of population growth, the gap between water resources and demand is widening. By the year of 2025 it is expected that the share of each individual will have fallen down from 200 cubic meters to 91 cubic meters per year. It is also expected that the water shortage will reach 620 million cubic meter in 2010.This will put Jordan in the countries which suffer in the water defense.


  • Human resource: the ratio of the labor force in agricultural sector to the total labor force is 33%. As a result of increasing demand on the labor force especially in the economic field and in addition to the problems that the agriculture sector are facing .The percentage of labor force in this sector decreased to 6.9% in 2002.(Department of Statistic.2003)


  • Although the agriculture sector contribution in Gross Domestic Product is insignificant which is estimated in 2003 only with 2.1% .It is very important to say that the agricultural sector is an essential source of activities in other economic sector especially in the service and industry sector. The contribution of agribusiness is 27%. Agricultural Credit Corporation and The Department of Statistic evaluated the agricultural   outstanding loans by 120111.5 thousand. In general Jordan is suffering from defense of capital for investment.
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