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Egypt PDF Print E-mail

While agriculture is important throughout the world, for the people of Egypt it has always been a matter of working closely with the seasons and understanding their change. Throughout history, Egypt has celebrated the relationship between the land they farm and the Nile.

The Nile is the longest river in the world, a majestic body of water that flows with the very life of Egypt in its currents. The shape of the Nile is that of a Lotus flower, the ancient Egyptian symbol for regeneration of life. Rainfall is almost non-existent in Egypt, and the Nile has always been the source of water for crops and animals.

Agriculture remains one of Egypt’s most important sectors and continues to achieve steady growth rates of 3-4% per year. Growing middle-income countries generally exhibit a decline in agriculture’s share of GDP and employment, and Egypt is no exception. The sector’s contribution to GDP has fallen gradually from 20% in FY 1986/87 to 16% in FY 2002/03 and the number of Egyptians employed in the sector has fallen, from 33.8% of the total labor force in FY 90/91 to 28.4% in 2001/02. The challenge for Egypt is to maintain and expand agricultural production for domestic and export markets while at the same time adding value and employment through the development of more agriculture-based processing activities. 

Productivity gains since the mid-1980’s, achieved through long-term government commitments to policy reform and liberalization coupled with assistance from donors (particularly USAID), have helped sharply increase grain and vegetable production, closing the gap between domestic food supply and demand. Wheat production was 6.15 million metric tons (mmt) and rice production was 3.7 mmt in 2002, little changed from 2001. Nevertheless, Egypt remains a large food importer. Egypt is a traditional market for U.S. grain exports, although U.S. wheat exports lost substantial market share in 2002-03 to other competitors, particularly France, Russia, and Ukraine. U.S. wheat prices were substantially higher than those of its competitors due to the small crop in the U.S. Cotton production decreased from 315,000 metric tons (mt) in the 2001/02 marketing year to 285,000 mt in 2002/03 because farmers opted to grow other crops that generate more revenue than cotton.


Today, agriculture is still an integral part of Egyptian society and culture. They have continued to use traditional methods handed down through the centuries. Many still use the ancient methods of irrigation, organic manure, and crop rotation. Egypt is an agricultural country with as much beauty as practicality. The wealth derived from agriculture in Egypt can be weighed in more than just coins. The history of agriculture in Egypt has made them rich in knowledge. The courage of past generations has become the courage and wisdom of present and future generations in Egypt. Egypt is a shining example that pride, skill and determination are the foundations of a successful nation.

Going back to the annual book of Arabic Agricultural Statistics, issued by the Arab Organization of Agricultural Development, The year 2003 witnessed:

-Gross Agricultural production in current prices 10695 Million US Dollars.

- Value of Agricultural Exports 869,76 Million US Dollars.

- Value of Agricultural Imports 2656 Million US Dollars



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