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Water Demand PDF Print E-mail



Water is crucial for humans' survival and for the development of their economies. It is also a crucial element in the protection of the environment. The availability of fresh water has already been an important concern in many parts of the world. The world's population is now increasing about a quarter of million people per day. With this phenomenal population growth, there is, in addition to the water requirements for domestic use, an increasing demand of it for energy generation, agricultural intensification and industrial production.With  given fixed global fresh water supply and the growing world population, water shortages anticipated since before 1970s are now a reality.


Water situation in Jordan:


The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is known to be one of the most water scarce countries in the world, where water shortage has become of permanent nature and meeting water demands is a challenge.


The water shortages facing Jordan are profound and, while the country is presently undertaking extensive reform and investment into the water sector, forecasts indicate that a significant shortfall will still exist. The problem is not only that there is not enough water but this is compounded by the high population growth rate of the country. The rate of population growth in Jordan is 3.6 percent, and with a current population of around 5 million, it is expected to reach 7 million by the year 2010.The increasing population, industrial requirements, and the need for irrigation water puts increased pressure on water industries. Added to that, the living standards have increased inJordan during the second half of the 20th century, raising the per capita use of water. The present per capita daily water use is 85 liters, which is very small compared to the United Kingdom’s average of 225 liters/day.


Water Resources:

Jordan’s Renewable freshwater resources are estimated at about 850 million cubic m3/year, consisting primarily of surface and ground water. Options for non-conventional water resources that can be mobilized are modest where nearly all ofJordan’s renewable water resources have been developed and most citizens in Amman receive water only once a week. The options for augmenting water supply are limited; some additional rainwater can be harvested and some brackish water can be pumped from sandstone aquifers. The per capita share of renewable water resources is among the lowest in the world, and is declining with time.


Water Management:

The water strategy stresses on the need to tap the full potential of surface and ground water to a feasible extent, the marginal quality and brackish water support irrigated agriculture, seawater desalination produce additional water for municipal, industrial and commercial consumption. 

Resource management : aims at achieving the highest possible efficiency in the distribution, application and use of water.


Water demand management: is a management approach aiming at conserving water by controlling demand. It involves technological, behavioral, economic, and institutional measures designed to secure safe water supplies to increasing populations.


The efforts of water scarce countries to explore conventional and non-conventional sources are increasingly thwarted by inefficient water usage and pollution control. Every drop of water must count. In addition to educational programmes for raising awareness of water conservation, wise and efficient water use measures are needed at the heart of integrated water management plans, embracing water pricing, pollution prevention, and the integration of recycled wastewater into the water cycle as a non-conventional water source.

Conservation And The Efficient Use Of Water:


Compared to other options, water conservation initiatives resulting in the efficient use of water provide the most immediate and promising results by using existing technology and low-cost changes in procedures. They can be implemented globally using technological advances applied to large and small-scale irrigation systems. Improving agricultural and green industry irrigation efficiency through conservation could reduce water needs by 10% worldwide and double the amount of water available for general consumption. Benefits include increases in agricultural productivity, improved water efficiency of up to 95% and permanent reductions in water use



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